Thursday, May 2, 2013

What is Web 2.0?

Web 2.0 is an application that users use to communicate via the computer and other digital devices. It is a way to stay in touch and collaborate with others. Library staff as well as patrons benefit from the use of Web 2.0

Blogs, Wikis, and RSS

Many people are unfamiliar with the term ‘blog’, so I will like to define the word “blog.” The term Blog is a contraction of web-log. A blog can be compared to a personal diary. But, while a personal diary is kept locked in a drawer, the Blog can be read by everyone because it is published online (Zanin-Yost, 2010). Blogs can be used by libraries to offer information on services, new purchases and events. Libraries have begun using blogs to improve their proficiency in many ways. An example is that the Ross-Blakley Law Library Blog at the University of Arizona allows customers to search for news by categories. A Blog can also be used to provide specialized information. An example is that the public library of Allen County in Indiana has a blog dedicated just for young people. A blog can be used to reach out to patrons, especially if the blog is offered in other languages. An example is the Sacramento Public Library which offers the blog both in English and Spanish. The Blog also allows patrons to have a voice and speak their opinions. In the case of the Blog at Cornell University, questions about the library can be answered by anyone. The best example of how a library uses blogs to enhance its efficiency happened at the Ann Arbor District Library. The library integrated the blog into its library’s homepage and information was posted regularly. The blog allows individuals to write their responses informally. A wiki is a website where individuals can collaborate with each other. A wiki is different from a blog because a person can not only add information, but can change what already has been published. Librarians can use wikis as well as blogs to inform patrons about library products and services. The main difference between a Wiki and a blog is that the information within a wiki is subject to change. Wikis are useful in libraries because it allows people to work on projects. An example is that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) engineering and science libraries created a Wiki where they could discuss what type of services of offer their patrons. Libraries also use Wikis to create spaces where librarians can easily update their research guides and communicate internally. Wikis also allow organizations to communicate and collaborate internally. Libraries can use wikis to enhance their productivity by keeping library personnel informed of what is happening in their systems, or to update manuals and documents that are used in libraries (Zanin-Yost, 2010). ReallySimpleSyndication or RSS is one of the tools that library use because they save time. Libraries can also inform others of exhibitions or other events that are occurring in the libraries. The needs of library patrons have changed, therefore the library must change to accommodate patrons’ needs. If not people will look at libraries as obsolete, and find other means to get their needs met. The technology that is used in libraries should only be used for the real needs of the library and its users.

Social networking and facebook

Students as well as adults visit libraries to use facebook. Facebook is a popular social networking Web site. Librarians use Facebook as a way of providing outreach to campus communities, while also promoting and marketing library services (Ganster, 2009). This allows a place for patrons to interact with librarians by becoming a part of an online community. Because of Facebook, libraries are now able to develop an outreach presence and information center within this online community. An example of how one library is using Facebook to enhance its efficiency is that in December 2007, librarians at the State University of New York at Buffalo began exploring ways to use Facebook Pages as a virtual tool to reach out to patrons and market library services. The library conducted a survey and based on users’ responses found that the use of Facebook Pages provided a welcome extension of services and a different form of outreach that not only reached out to campus community but reached beyond the campus community. Ganster and Schumacher (2009) list some of the third-party applications that Facebook developers have created to enhance their pages. One example includes a JSTOR application that allows users to search the JSTOR database through facebook. Another example is that the University at Buffalo Libraries Page uses the photo upload capability to create albums of the various libraries and key units, including circulation, reference, interlibrary loans, etc. Library patrons can view the library environment virtually. The library has included video tutorials where patrons have the capabilities to collaborate with the libraries by adding their own photos and videos. Another Facebook application that is useful to libraries is the Facebook Static Facebook Markup Language application. The University at Buffalo used this application to provide links to their library hours and also provided links to their subject guides, Instant Librarian-which is a chat reference, library exhibits, students frequently asked questions, and subject librarian Web pages.

Thursday, April 4, 2013

LIS Timeline

Teresa Reynolds


Important Events in the Development of LIS Computers






Use of online information in reference services

Expansion of online information technologies such as:
  • Digital libraries
  • Web portal
  • Web 2.0
  • Social networking

Growth of CD-ROMS and integrated
library systems


Growth of internet
And World Wide Web








The traditional library has changed tremendously due to new technology. Libraries offer more services than checking out and checking in books. Copying, faxing, and notary are just a few of the many services that libraries now offer. Many events played a major role in the development of libraries and the way in which services are provided.

The growth of electronic resources and the World Wide Web have played a major role in the way academic libraries as well as public libraries conduct services. An example is that many of the libraries in Georgia are using the PINES system. This system allows libraries to borrow and loan materials for patrons. It also allows patrons to use their library cards at any participating PINES library. The addition of downloadable e-books and audiobooks in libraries makes it easier for patrons to utilize the services of the libraries. Also, the use of computers for the public has increased the services that libraries provide.

In conclusion, there are many events that have caused the development of todays library information system computers. Libraries have to be aware of the needs of their patrons and they have to keep abreast of changes that are occurring in other organizations and what is happening in this digital age. I have included major events that have influenced the overall development of technology in the library, but I think some of the most important ones include:

·         Developments in microphotography because this led to an actual book being photographed and attached to the back of a card catalog. Also photocopying saved time for patrons because they did not have to copy material out of texts by hand.

·         First applications of computers in libraries because this led to the creation of Machine Readable Cataloging (MARC) which became the standard for the creation of bibliographic records.

·         Use of online information in reference services because this led to the beginning of early attempts to automate library circulation, cataloging, and acquisition systems.

·         Growth of CD-ROMs and integrated library systems allowed libraries more efficient information sharing and the development of online public access catalogs (OPACS) was an early example of end-user search systems. After materials could be accessed electronically, the next step was automating circulation.

·         Growth of internet and the World Wide Web because this allow users to communicate between individuals and organizations and to share information.

·         Expansion of online information technologies because information can now be shared digitally.







Copyflo: First semi-automatic xerographic printer; makes continuous copies on ordinary paper.

In 1955 The Telecomputing Corp. of Burbank California began testing a new punch tape method for recording circulation transactions, but was deemed to be too costly at the time to implement.

Termatrex Index, pre-computer, performs Boolean searching.
Termatrex is a punch card based system

Brodart introduced its circulation system "Brodac" at the 1956 ALA conference. Brodac used heat sensitive paper, similar to film to record circulation transactions.


In 1956 Congress approved the Library Services Act that would later become the Library Services and Technology Act. The LSA helped to establish federal funding for libraries.

LSCA stimulated cooperative projects, centralized bibliographic control and particularly the use of computer based systems. Many states initially used LSCA funds to support their initial installation of OCLC.


ALA began the Library Technology Project (LTP) with the goal of reviewing, testing, and standardizing library technology.

In 1961 the Association of Research Libraries and the ALA adopted a joint resolution allowing libraries to make one copy of an article or part of a book, whether copyrighted or not, under the spirit of the 'fair use' provision of copyright law.

The Medical Research Library of Brooklyn claims to have been among the first libraries to use the Xerox 914 copier (circa 1959) for the purpose of making copies of articles for inter-library loan use in 1962.


 April 22-October 17: The New York World's Fair offers public viewing of online bibliographic retrieval at Library/USA.This is the first time the general public sees bibliographic information and interacts remotely with librarians through a computer using standard telephone lines. This is the first online system to allow for simultaneous users for one database using search software. Joe Becker is the main producer and reporter of this event.


The very beginnings of machine-readable databases was the pioneering service developed by the National Library of Medicine in the United States called MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System).” Implemented in 1964, according to Thompson, MEDLARS introduction signaled “information technology’s” beginning.”


The US Navy Electronics Library introduced photocopied catalog cards reproduced on a Xerox 914 copier. The system was able to reproduce six sets of cards simultaneously directly from the corresponding array of six master, or main-entry, cards.

This new process produced duplicate cards at a rate of approximately 200 per hour, as compared to about 50 per hour, typed.

MARC I as it was then known, began distribution via magnetic [computer] tape. Approximately 50,000 Eng. language records were sent to the 16 participating libraries between 11/66-6/68 - the initial trial period for the program.


The OCLC (originally the Ohio College Library Center) was founded in 1967.


The Invention of high-reduction microforms was first mentioned in the February 1972 issue of Advanced Technology Libraries.

Light-pen systems with barcodes were first used routinely for circulation systems in Great Britain beginning about 1972, and by the following year there were at least eight such systems in operation. Book number and borrower was recorded by pen device, and then recorded on magnetic tape.

According to the book, Library Automation the State of the Art II, many cooperative processing using networks were introduced in the 1970"s among then was DATRAN,which planned a digital service across 35 cities, with the first segment to be implemented in 1973-1974.


The Research Libraries Group, Inc. (RLG) was established in 1974 by Harvard, Yale, and Columbia Universities and the New York Public Library to create a computer-based bibliographic processing system that would improve efficiency in library operations, link RLG programs, and afford library users searching for bibliographic information an increased and more flexible set of access points than was possible in conventional card catalogs.



The primary publishing division of the American Chemical Society in Washington was the first to experiment with ways of putting the full-text of one of their primary journals on-line.

In October, November, and December of 1980 a research project took place endorsed and supervised by the Research Department at OCLC which involved the first ever “home delivery of library services.

In 1981, the Integrated Library System (ILS) was written for the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to run on several machines including an LSI 11/23, one of the larger microcomputers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) at the time

In 1981, the University of Missouri, Columbia, developed a program on a TRS-80 which the local public library used as a Telnet host. The program enabled the library to communicate with other libraries within the local and state library networks regarding interlibrary loan requests and general electronic mail messages (Smith, 1982, p. 35).

In 1982, the Library of Congress embarked on an Optical Disc Pilot Program, divided into print and nonprint experimental projects, in an attempt to determine the feasibility of using the optical disc medium as a preservation and high-speed access device for library materials.



Growth of internet and World Wide Web


Reference librarians make use of an electronic listserv called Stumpers - "devoted to finding the answers to sticky reference questions." It was developed in 1992 by Anne Feeny, a library student.


10/11/95 - Senate passes Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA), updating and replacing the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA).


Wireless was introduced in Public Library in North Little Rock, Arkansas (probably not the first library it was used in but maybe useful at dating wifi environment to pre- 2000).


Expansion of online information technologies.


Cleveland Library first to circulate eBook collection-
Monday, January 06, 2003-In what appears to be a big step for electronic media, the Cleveland Public Library has inked a deal to bring eBooks to PDA's, PC's and anything else with an appropriate eBook reader. . .





Becker, J. & Hayes, C. (1972). The end of libraries. Advance Techonology Libraries, 117(1), 59-63.

Flagg, G. (1995). Senate passes measure to update, replace LSCA. American Libraries, 26(11), 1088-1089.

Grosch, A. (1980). Minicomputers in libraries. New York: Scarecrow Press.

Hildreth, C. (1987). Library Automation in North America: A Reassessment of the Impact of New Technologies on Networking. p. 50.

Johnson, J.R.. (2002), First Facts: guides to the library. Boston Public Library, Retrieved from

Kenney, A., & Chapman, S. (1996). Digital imaging for libraries and archives. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Library.

Olson, R. (October, 1994). Stumped reference librarians find help on the internet. American Libraries, 25 (9), 26-31.

Rubin, R. (2010). Foundations of library and information science. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.

Salmon, S. R. (1969). Library automation: A state of the art Review. Chicago: American Library Association.

Salmon, S.R. (1975).  Library automation systems.  Advance Technology Libraries, 85(2), 78-86.

Tedd, L.A. (1979). An introduction to computer-based library systems. Philadelphia, PA: Heyden Company.

Tuesday, January 29, 2013


This blog will focus on Web 2.0. People use social networking today to communicate with friends and even to find friends who they have lost contact with. Facebook, Twitter, Skype, etc. are a few of these social network websites. There are both advantages and disadvantages to using social networks in today's world.

Introduction to Topic

Social networking allows individuals to communicate and bond online. It allows people to share as much information as they would like or as little as possible. Many libraries as well as other organizations have facebook pages or twitter. Technologies that use this way of communicating and sharing information with others is grouped into a category known as Web 2.0.

Profile: Teresa Reynolds

I am attending Valdosta State College where I am majoring in Library Information Science.

As a child, my dream was to become a teacher. I received my degree in Elementary Education from Troy State University. While interning I realized that this was not for me, so I decided to return to school. I love libraries and this is why I decided to major in Library Information Science.